Monday, April 13, 2015

Lady in Gold and America's Heroes


The Woman in Gold and America’s Heroes

The movie The Woman in Gold is excellent.  We were very glad we went, and as my wife and I drove home, we talked about the wonder of the art, evil that hate can bring and the wonder of America where justice for one is justice for all.  My favorite moment was when, speaking before the Supreme Court, the young lawyer, Randol Schoenberg, says of Mrs. Altman: “She came to America to find peace – let’s give her justice too.”

It was gratifying to know that the picture sold for 135 million dollars, but we should contemplate how much freedom and justice are worth.

A few weeks ago, a friend of mine, an American Soldier who has spent years of his life defending truth and justice, said he would like to commission me to paint a picture of his former commanding officer.   I accepted, perhaps tempted beyond my abilities by the chance of pay.  It took me several weeks to produce something I was satisfied with.

We got home from the movie and I called my friend.  He came over and graciously accepted the watercolor painting.  I suggested we discuss payment.  I told him I had spoken with my daughter-in-law about what she charged for her paintings and that she often works out swaps – a dentist gets his daughter painted in exchange for fixing my grandchildren’s teeth.   So I told my friend that I would work out such a deal with him.  I told him I would trade my efforts for the freedom and safety of my family and friends.  I also told him that if anyone ever asked what he paid for the painting he could truthfully say it was priceless. 

Here’s the picture.


Friday, April 03, 2015

The Fellowship of the Ring - Book One by J. R. R. Tolkien


            It has been fifty years since I first read The Lord of the Rings.  At fourteen, I told the story to my fellow Boy Scouts from Troop 321 as we sat around the camp fire on warm summer nights in the High Uintas. This was the beginning of my story telling carrier.  I hold that Tolkien was the greatest writer of the twentieth century; The Lord of the Rings his greatest work.  This most recent reading was my twelfth. I have read many of Tolkien’s posthumously published works.  I have just finished his translation and lectures on Beowulf.  I am particularly appreciative of The Silmarillian; once I had read it, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings were revealed to me.  When I read them again – it was like reading them for the first time.

            I am less than a fan of the Peter Jackson movies of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.  I have never seen a Tolkien based movie I could like.  In fact Jackson's third instalment of the Hobbit was my motivation for reading and extracting quotes from the books themselves.  I recently read a description of Jackson’s third Hobbit move as "The Bloating of the Five Pages”; how appropriate.

            What follows are my chosen quotes from The Fellowship of the Ring - Book One.  There are two books in each volume of the Lord of the Rings trilogy.  As I read, I mark and annotate the passages that interest me.  I will be typing them up and posting them here “At the Agora” as time permits.  Once I have them all recorded, I intend to index all the quotes as well. 

The Fellowship of the Ring – Book I – J. R. R. Tolkien

Prologue

1. Sources – Bilbo’s Books:  “Further information will also be found in the selection from the Red Book of Westmarch that has already been published, under the title of The Hobbit.  That story was derived from the earlier chapters of the Red Book, composed by Bilbo himself, the first Hobbit to become famous in the world at large, and called by him There and Back Again, since they told of his journey into the East and his return: an adventure which later involved all the Hobbits in the great events of the Age are here related.”  p. 20

2. Hobbits Described: “Hobbits are an unobtrusive but very ancient people, more numerous formerly than they are today; for they love peace and quiet and good tilled earth: a well-ordered and well-farmed countryside was their favorite haunt.  They do not and did not understand or like machines more complicated than a forge-bellows, a water-mill, or a hand-loom, though they were skillful with tools.  Even in ancient days they were, as a rule, shy of ‘the Big Folk’, as they call us, and now they avoid us with dismay and are becoming hard to find.  They are quick of hearing and sharp-eyed, and though they are inclined to be fat and do not hurry unnecessarily, they are nonetheless nimble and deft in their movements.  They possessed from the first the art of disappearing swiftly and silently, when large folk whom they do not wish to meet come blundering by; and this art they have developed until to Men it may seem magical. But Hobbits have never, in fact, studied magic of any kind, and their elusiveness is due solely to a professional skill that heredity and practice, and a close friendship with the earth, have rendered inimitable by bigger and clumsier races. - - - For they are a little people, smaller then Dwarves: less stout and stocky, that is, even when they are not actually much shorter.  Their height is variable, ranging between two and four feet of our measure.  They seldom now reach three feet; but they have dwindled, they say, and in ancient days they were taller.  According to the Red Book, Bandobras Took (Bullroarer), son of Isengrim the Second, was four foot five and able to ride a horse.  He was surpassed in all Hobbit records only by two famous characters of old; but that curious matter is dealt with in this book. - - - As for the Hobbits of the Shire, with whom these tales are concerned, in the days of their peace and prosperity they were a merry folk.  They dressed in bright colors, being notably fond of yellow and green; but they seldom wore shoes, since their feet had tough leathery soles and were clad in a thick curling hair, much like the hair of their heads, which was commonly brown.  Thus, the only craft little practiced among them was shoe-making; but they had long and skillful fingers and could make many other useful and comely things.  Their faces were as a rule good-natured rather than beautiful, broad, bright eyed, red-cheeked, with mouths apt to laughter, and to eating and drinking.  And laugh they did, and eat, and drink, often and heartily, being found of simple jests at all times, and of six meals a day (when they could get them).  They were hospitable and delighted in parties, and in presents, which they gave away freely and eagerly accepted.”  p. 20-21

3. Bilbo and Frodo 1st Make Hobbits Important in the “World”: But in the days of Bilbo, and of Frodo his heir, they suddenly became, by no wish of their own, both important and renowned, and troubled the counsels of the Wise and the Great.” p. 22

4. Three Breeds of Hobbits:  “. . . the Hobbits had already become divided into three somewhat different breeds: Harfoots, Stoors, and Fallohides.  The Harfoots were browner of skin, smaller, and shorter, and they were beardless and bootless; their hands and feet were neat and nimble; and they preferred highlands and hillsides.  The Stoors were broader, heavier in build; their feet and hands were larger, and they preferred flat lands and riversides.  The Fallohides were fairer of skin and also of hair, and they were taller and slimmer than the others; they were lovers of trees and woodlands. . . Even in Bilbo’s time the strong Fallohidish strain could still be noted among the greater families, such as the Tooks and the Masters of Buckland.” pp. 22-23

5. Language:  “It was in these early days, doubtless, that the Hobbits learned their letters and began to write after the manner of the Dunedain, who had in their turn long before learned the art from the Elves.  And in those days also they forgot whatever languages they had used before, and spoke ever after the Common Speech, the Westron as it was named, that was current through all the lands of the kings of Arnor to Gondor, and about all the coasts of the Sea from Belfalas to Lune.  Yet they kept a few words of their own, as well as their own names of months and days, and a great store of personal names out of the past.”  p. 24

6. The Numbering of the Years:  Thus began the Shire-reckoning, for the year of the crossing of the Brandywine (as the Hobbits turned the name) became Year One of the Shire, and all later dates were reckoned from it.” p. 24

7. Relationship to the King:  “While there was still a king they were in name his subjects, but they were, in fact, ruled by their own chieftains and meddled not at all with events in the world outside . . . in that war the North kingdom ended; and then the Hobbits took the land for their own, and they chose from their own chiefs a Thain to hold the authority of the king that was gone.” p. 25 

8. They Forgot the Service of the Rangers:  “They forgot or ignored what little they had ever know of the Guardians, and of the labours of those that made possible the long peace of the Shire.”  p. 25

9. On Global Warming: “Even the weather had grown milder, and the wolves that had once come ravening out of the North in bitter white winters were now only a grandfather’s tale.” p. 25

10. A Pampered but Tough People – Think America:  “Nonetheless, ease and peace had left this people still curiously tough.  They were, if it came to it, difficult to daunt or to kill; and they were, perhaps, so unwearyingly fond of good things not least because they could, when put to it, do without them, and could survive rough handling by grief, foe, or weather in a way that astonished those who did not know them well and looked no further than their bellies and their well-fed faces.”  p. 26

11. On Facial Hair:  “. . . they were well known to be Stoors in a large part of their blood, as indeed was shown by the down that any grew on their chins.  No Harfoot or Fallohide had any trace of a beard.” p. 27

12. On Genealogy:  “They drew long and elaborate family-trees with innumerable branches.  In dealing with Hobbits it is important to remember who is related to whom, and in what degree.”  p. 28

13. Pipe-weed:  “There is another thing about the Hobbits of old that must be mentioned, an astonishing habit: they imbibed or inhaled, through pipes of clay or wood, the smoke of the burning leaves of an herb, which they called pipe-weed or leaf, a variety probably of Nicotiana  . . . I suspect, original brought over Sea by the Men of Westerness.”  pp. 28-29

14. Laws from the King:  “Yet the Hobbits still said of wild folk and wicked things (such as trolls) that they had not heard of the king.  For they attributed to the king of old all their essential laws; and usually kept the laws of free will, because they were The Rules (as they said), both ancient and just.”  p. 30

15. Precious:  “He [Gollum] possessed a secret treasure that had come to him long ages ago, when he lived still in the light: a ring of gold that made its wearer invisible.  It was the one thing he loved, his ‘precious’, and he talked to it even when it was not with him.”  p. 33

16. Spared out of Pity:  “There Gollum crouched at bay, smelling and listening; and Bilbo was tempted to slay him with his sword.  But pity stayed him, and though he kept the ring, in which his only hope lay, he would not use it to help him kill the wretched creature at a disadvantage.”  p. 34

17. Bilbo’s First Story “Inaccurate”:  Now it is a curious fact that this is not the story as Bilbo first told it to his companions.  To them his account was that Gollum had promised to give him a present if he won the game . . . This account Bilbo set down in his memoirs, and he seems never to have altered it himself, not even at the Council of Elrond.  Evidently it still appeared in the original Red Book, as it did in several of the copies and abstracts.  But many stories contain the true account (as an alternative), derived no doubt, from notes by Frodo or Samwise, both of whom learned the truth, though they seem to have been unwilling to delete anything actually written by the old hobbit himself.” pp. 34-35

18. The Truth Is Important:  “Gandalf, however, disbelieved Bilbo’s first story, as soon as he head it, and he continued to be very curious about the ring.  Eventually he got the true tale out of Bilbo after much questioning, which for a while strained their friendship; but the wizard seemed to think the truth important.  Though he did not say so to Bilbo, he also thought it important, and disturbing, to find that the good hobbit had not told the truth from the first: quite contrary to his habit.”  p. 35

Note on the Shire Records

19. Sources: “This account of the end of the Third Age is drawn mainly form the Red Book of Westmarch.  That most important source for the history of the War of the Ring was so called because it was long preserved at Undertowers, the home of the Fairbairns, Wardens of the Westmarch.  It was in origin Bilbo’s private diary, which he took with him to Rivendell.  Frodo brought it back to the Shire, together with may loose leaves of notes and during S.S. 1420-1 he nearly filled its pages with his account of the War.  But annexed to it and preserved with it, probably in a single red case, were the three large volumes, bound in red leather, that Bilbo gave to him as a parting gift.”  p. 37 

20. Bilbo’s Scholarly Works:  “But the chief importance of Findegil’s copy [Began under the direction of Thain Peregrin.] is that it alone contains the whole of Bilbo’s ‘Translations from the Elvish’.  These three volumes were found to be a work of great skill and learning in which, between 1403 and 1418, he had used all the sources available to him in Rivendell, both living and written.  But since they were little used by Frodo, being almost entirely concerned with the Elder Days, no more is said of them here.”  p. 38

21. Celeborn Departs with the Last Living Memories of the Elder Days: “It was probably at Great Smials that The Tale of Years was put together, with the assistance of material collected by Meriadoc . . . It is probable that Meriadoc obtained assistance and information from Rivendell, which he visited more than once.  There, though Elrond had departed, his sons long remained, together with some of the High-elven folk.  It is said that Celeborn went to dwell there after the departure of Galadriel; but there is no record of the day when at last he sought the Grey Havens, and with him went the last living memory of the Elder Days in Middle-earth.” p. 39

Book One

22. Bilbo, Well-Preserved and Rich:  “Time wore on, but it seemed to have little effect on Mr. Baggins.  At ninety he was much the same as at fifty.   At ninety-nine they began to call him well-preserved; but unchanged would have been nearer the mark.  There were some that shook their heads and thought this was too much of a good thing; it seemed unfair that anyone should possess (apparently) perpetual youth as well as (reputedly) in-exhaustible wealth.”  p. 43

23. Tweens: “At that time Frodo was still in his tweens, as the hobbits called the irresponsible twenties between childhood and coming of age at thirty-three. “  p. 44

24. On the Ages of Hobbits: “Bilbo was going to be eleventy-one, 111, a rather curious number, and a very respectable age for a hobbit (the Old Took himself had only reached 130); and Frodo was going to be thirty-three, 33, an important number: the date of his ‘coming of age’.”  p. 44

25. Frodo’s Linage and Relationship to Bilbo: “’Baggins is his name, but he’s more than half a Brandybuck, they say . . . Well, so they say,’ said the Gaffer.  ‘You see: Mr. Drogo, he married poor Miss Primula Brandybuck.  She was our Mr. Bilbo’s first cousin on the mother’s side (her mother being the youngest of the Old Took’s daughters): and Mr. Drogo was his second cousin.  So Mr. Frodo is his first and second cousin, once removed either way, as the saying is, if you follow me.”  p. 45

26. Sixty Years since Bilbo’s Adventure: “I [the Gaffer] saw Mr. Bilbo when he came back, a matter of sixty years ago, when I was a lad.”  p. 46

27. On Gandalf and His Fireworks:  “That was Gandalf’s mark, of course, and the old man was Gandalf the wizard, whose fame in the Shire was due mainly to his skill with fires, smokes, and lights.  His real business was far more difficult and dangerous, but the Shire-folk knew nothing about it.”  p. 48

28. Hobbits and Birthdays:  “Hobbits give presents to other people on their own birthdays.  Not very expensive ones, as a rule, and not so lavishly as on this occasion [September 22 – Bilbo and Frodo’s combine birthday]; but it was not a bad system.  Actually in Hobbiton and Bywater every day in the year was some-body’s birthday, so that every hobbit in those parts had a fair chance of at least one present at least once a week.  But they never got tired of them.”  pp. 50-51

28. Art Improves with Age:  “The art of Gandalf improved with age.”  p.51

29. Hobbiton Opinion of Bilbo’s Poetry:  “He [Bilbo] was liable to drag in bits of what he called poetry, and sometimes, after a glass or two, would allude to the absurd adventures of his mysterious journey.”  p. 53

30. Proudfoots:  “‘Proud-FEET!’ shouted an elderly hobbit from the back of the pavilion.  His name, of course, was Proudfoot, and well merited; his feet were large, exceptionally furry, and both were on the table.”  pp. 53-54

31. A Back-handed Complement:  I don’t know half of you half as well as I should like; and I like less than half of you half as well as you deserve.”  p. 54

32. Frodo’s Love for Bilbo:  “Frodo was the only one present who had said nothing . . . he realized suddenly that he loved the old hobbit dearly.”  p. 56

33. Bilbo Gives Up the Ring:  “Bilbo took out the envelope, but just as he was about to set it by the clock, his hand jerked back, and the packet felon the floor.  Before he could pick it up, the wizard stooped and seized it and set in in its place.  A spasm of anger passed swiftly over the hobbit’s face again.  Suddenly it gave way to a look of relief and a laugh.”  p. 62

34. Bilbo’s Poem:  “The Road goes ever on and on – Down from the door where it began. – Now far ahead the Road has gone, - And I must follow, if I can, - Pursuing it with eager feet, - Until it joins some larger way – Where many paths and errands meant. – And whither then?  I cannot say.”  p. 62

35. Bilbo’s House Cluttered Up:  “Bilbo’s residence had got rather cluttered up with things in the course of his long life.”  p. 65

36. Gandalf Wonders about the Ring – Keep It safe, Keep It Secret:  “’I have merely begun to wonder about the ring, especially since last night.  No need to worry.  But if you take my advice you will use it very seldom, or not at all.  At least I beg you not to use it in any way that will cause talk or rouse suspicion.  I say again: keep it safe, and keep it secret!’”  p. 68

37. Frodo’s Friends; in the Seventeen Year Interim:  “He [Frodo] lived alone, as Bilbo had done; but he had a good many friends, especially among the younger hobbits (mostly descendants of the Old Took) who had as children been found of Bilbo and often in and out of Bag End.  Folco Boffin and Fredegar Bolger were two of these; but his closest friends were Pergrin Took (usually called Pippin), and Merry Brandybuck (his real name was Meriadoc, but that was seldom remembered).  Frodo went tramping over the Shire with them; but more often he wandered by himself, and to the amazement of sensible folk he was sometimes seen far from home walking in the hills and woods under the starlight.  Merry and Pippin suspected that he visited the Elves at times, as Bilbo had done.”  pp. 70-71

38. Young Looking Frodo:  “As time went on, people began to notice that Frodo also showed signs of good ‘preservation’:  outwardly he retained the appearance of a robust and energetic hobbit just out of his tweens.  ‘Some folk have all the luck,’ they said; but it was not until Frodo approached the usually more sober age of fifty that they began to think it queer.”  p. 71

39. The Importance of Being Fifty:  “So it went on, until his forties were running out, and his fiftieth birthday was drawing near:  fifty was a number that he felt was somehow significant (or ominous); it was at any rate at that age that adventure had suddenly befallen Bilbo.”  p. 71

40. The Elves are Leaving:  “Elves, who seldom walked in the Shire, could be seen passing westward through the woods in the evening, passing and not returning; but they were leaving Middle-earth and were no longer concerned with its troubles.”  p. 72

41. The Evil Power Driven From Mirkwood in the Dark Tower:  “It seemed that the evil power in Mirkwood had been driven out by the White Council only to reappear in greater strength in the old strongholds of Mordor.  The Dark Tower had been rebuilt . . .” p. 72

42. Tree-Men:  “‘All right,’ said Sam, laughing with the rest.  “But what about these Tree-men, these giants, as you might call them?  They do say that one bigger than a tree was seen up away beyond the North Moors not long back.’”  p. 73

43. The Making of Magic Rings:  “’In Eregion long ago many Elven-rings were made, magic rings as you call them, and they were, of course, of various kinds: some more potent and some less.  The lesser rings were only essays in the craft before it was full-grown, and to the Elven-smiths they were but trifles—yet still to my mind dangerous for mortals.  But the Great Rings, the Rings of Power, they were perilous.”  p. 76

44. The Effects of the Rings of Power:  “‘A mortal, Frodo, who keeps one of the Great Rings, does not die, but he does not grow or obtain more life, he merely continues, until at last every minute is a weariness.  And if he often uses the Ring to make himself invisible, he fades: he becomes in the end invisible permanently, and walks in the twilight under the eye of the dark power that rules the Rings.  Yes, sooner or later—later, if he is strong or well-meaning to begin with, but neither strength  nor good purpose will last—sooner or later the dark power will devour him.’”  p. 76

45. On Knowing:  “‘Know?’ said Gandalf.  ‘I have known much that only the Wise know, Frodo.  But I do not know, one might say.  There is a last test to make.  But, I no longer doubt my guess.”  p. 77

46. Meet Saruman: “‘I might perhaps have consulted Saruman the White, but something always held me back.’ - - - ‘Who is he?’ asked Frodo.  ‘I have never heard of him before.’ - - - ‘Maybe not,’ answered Gandalf.  ‘Hobbits are, or were, no concern of his.  Yet he is great among the Wise.  He is the chief of my order and the head of the Council.  His knowledge is deep, but his pride has grown with it, and he takes ill any meddling.  The lore of the Elven-rings, great and small, is his province.  He has long studied it, seeking the lost secrets of their making; but when the Rings were debated in the Council, all that he would reveal to us of his ring-lore told against my fears.”  p. 78  

47. Bilbo’s Escape from the Ring:  “Of course, he possessed the ring for many years, and used it, so it might take a long while for the influence to wear off—before it was safe for him to see it again, for instance.  Otherwise, he might live on for years, quite happily: just stop as he was when he parted with it.  For he gave it up in the end of his own accord: an important point.  No, I was not troubled about dear Bilbo any more, once he had let the ring go.  It is for you that I feel responsible.”  p. 79

48. On the Rings:  “Three rings for the Elven-kings under the sky, -- Seven for the Dwarf-lords n their halls of stone, - - Nine for Mortal Men doomed to die, - - One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne - - In the land of Mordor where the Shadows lie. - - One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, - - One ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them, - - In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie.” p. 81

 

49. The Return of the Dark Lord: [Gandalf] “. . . I told you of Sauron the Great, the Dark Lord, the rumors that you have heard are true: he has indeed arisen again and left his hold in Mirkwood and returned to his ancient fastness in the Dark Tower of Mordor . . . Always after a defeat and a respite, the Shadow takes another shape and grows again.”  p. 82

 

50. I wish - - - But:  “’I wish it need not have happened in my time,’ said Frodo. - - ‘So do I,’ said Gandalf, ‘and so do all who live to see such times.  But that is not for them to decide.  All we have to decide is what to do with the time that is given us.’” p. 82

 

51. The Danger of the Ring: [Gandalf]  “The Enemy still lacks one thing to give him strength and knowledge to beat down all resistance, break the last defenses, and cover all the lands in a second darkness.  He lacks the One Ring. - -- The Three, fairest of all, the Elf-lords hid from him. And his hand never touched them or sullied them. Seven the Dwarf-kings possessed, but three he has recovered, and the others the dragons have consumed.  Nine he gave to Mortal Men, proud and great, and so ensnared them. - - - So it is now: the Nine he has gathered to himself; the Seven also, or else they are destroyed.  The Three are hidden still.  But that no longer troubles him.  He only needs the One; for he made the Ring himself, it is his, and he let a great part o his own former power pass into it, so that he could rule all the others.  If he recovers it, then he will command them all again, wherever they be, even the Three, and all that has been wrought with them will be laid bare, and he will be stronger than ever.”  p. 82

 

52.  Why We Need the Ancient Tales – (Think Homer):  “‘It was taken from him,’ said Gandalf.  ‘The strength of the Elves to resist him was greater long ago; and not all Men were estranged from them.   The Men of Westernesse came to their aid.  That is a chapter of ancient history which it might be good to recall; for there was sorrow then too, and gathering dark, but great valour, and great deeds that were not wholly vain.’”  p. 83

 

53. Sauron’s Overthrow:  “’It was Gil-galad, Elven-king and Elendil of Westernesse who overthrew Sauron, though they themselves perished in the deed; and Isldur Elendil’s son cut the Ring from Sauron’s hand and took it for his own.  Then Sauron was vanquished and his spirit fled and was hidden for long years, until his shadow took shape again in Mirkwood.’”  p. 83

 

54. Stoor Matriarchy:  “There was among them a family of high repute, for it was large and wealthier than most, and it was ruled by a grandmother of the folk, stern and wise in old lore, such as they had.”  p. 84

 

55. Gollum Takes the Ring by Murder and Uses It for Evil:  “. . . he [Gollum] caught Deagol by the throat and strangled him, because the gold looked so bright and beautiful . . . and he found that none of his family could see him, when he was wearing the ring.  He was very pleased with his discovery and he concealed it; and he used it to find out secrets, and he put his knowledge to crooked and malicious uses.”  p. 85

 

56. Bilbo Alone Gave Up the Ring on His Own:  “The Ring of Power looks after itself, Frodo.  It may slip off treacherously, but its keeper never abandons it.   At most he plays with the idea of handing it on to some one else’s care—and that only at an early stage, when it first begins to grip.  But as far as I know Bilbo alone in history has ever gone beyond playing, and really done it.”  p. 87

 

57.  “’The Ring left him [Gollum], but an Other Power at Work: “‘ - - - What, just in time to meet Bilbo?’  Said Frodo.  ‘Wouldn’t an Orc have suited it better?’ - - - ‘It is no laughing matter,’ said Gandalf.  ‘Not for you.  It was the strangest event in the whole history of the Ring so far: Bilbo’s arrival just at that time, and putting his hand on it, blindly, in the dark. - - - ‘There was more than one power at work, Frodo.  The Ring was trying to get back to its master.  It had slipped from Isildur’s hand and betrayed him; then when a chance came it caught poor Deagol, and he was murdered; and after that Gollum, and it had devoured him.  It could make no further use of him: he was too small and mean; and as long as it stayed with him he would never leave his deep pool again.  So now, when its master was awake once more and sending out his dark thought from Mirkwood, it abandoned Gollum.  Only to be picked up by the most unlikely person imaginable: Bilbo form the Shire! - - - ‘Behind that there was something else at work, beyond any design of the Ring-maker.  I can put it no plainer than by saying that Bilbo was meant to find the Ring, and not by its maker.  In which case you also were meant to have it.  And that may be an encouraging thought.’”  pp. 87-88

 

58. Aragorn and the Capture of Gollum:  [Gandalf] “And my search would have been in vain, but for the help that I had from a friend:  Aragorn, the greatest traveler and huntsman of this age of the world.  Together we sought for Gollum down the whole length of Wilderland, without hope, and without success.  But at last, when I had given up the chase and turned to other parts, Gollum was found.  My friend returned out of great perils bringing the miserable creature with him”  p. 91

 

59. On Pity: [Frodo] “What a pity that Bilbo did not stab that vile creature, when he had a chance!” - - - [Gandalf] “Pity?  It was Pity that stayed his hand.  Pity, and Mercy: not to strike without need.  And he has been well rewarded, Frodo.  Be sure that he took so little hurt from the evil, and escaped in the end, because he began his ownership of the Ring so.  With Pity.”  p. 92

 

60. On Capital Punishment and Who Deserves Death or Life: [Frodo] “Now at any rate he is as bad as an Orc, and just an enemy.  He deserves death.”   [Gandalf] - - - “Deserves it!  I daresay he does.  Many that live deserve death.  And some that die deserve life.  Can you give it to them?  Then do not be too eager to deal out death in judgement.”  pp. 92-93

 

61. Gandalf Foresees Gollum’s Part and Tells of the Kindness of Elves:  “For even the very wise cannot see all ends.  I have not much hope that Gollum can be cured before he dies, but there is a chance of it.  And he is bound up with the fate of the Ring.  My heart tells me that he has some part to play yet, for good or ill, before the end; and when that comes, the pity of Bilbo may rule the fate of many—yours not least.  In any case we did not kill him: he is very old and very wretched.  The Wood-elves have him in prison, but they treat him with such kindness as they can find in their wise hearts.’”  p. 93

 

62. How to Destroy the Ring:  [Gandalf] “Your small fire, of course, would not melt even ordinary gold.  This Ring has already passed through it unscathed, and even unheated.  But there is no smith’s forge in the Shire that could change it at all. Not even the anvils and furnaces of the Dwarves could do that.  It has been said that dragon-fire could melt and consume the Rings of Power, but there is not now any dragon left on earth in which the old fire is hot enough; nor was there ever any dragon, not even Ancalagon the Black, who could have harmed the One Ring, the Ruling Ring, for that was made by Sauron himself. - - - ‘There is only one way: to find the Cracks of Doom in the depths of Orodruin the Fire-mountain, and cast the Ring in there, if you really wish to destroy it, to put it beyond the grasp of the Enemy for ever.” p. 94

 

63. Frodo Questions His Calling:  “‘I do really wish to destroy it!’  cried Frodo.  ‘Or, well, to have it destroyed.  I am not made for perilous quests.  I wish I had never seen the Ring!   Why did it come to me?  Why was I chosen?’”  pp. 94-95

 

64. Gandalf Refuses the Ring:  “‘No!’ cried Gandalf, springing to his feet.  ‘With that power I should have power to great and terrible.  And over me the Ring would gain a power still greater and more deadly.’  His eyes flashed and his face was lit as by a fire within.  ‘Do not temp me!  For I do not wish to become like the Dark Lord himself. Yet the way of the Ring to my heart is by pity, pity for weakness and the desire of strength to do good.  Do not tempt me!  I dare not take it, not even to keep it safe, unused.  The wish to wield it would be too great for my strength.  I shall have such need of it.  Great perils lie before me.”  p. 95

 

65. On Hobbits: Bilbo’s Wisdom and Frodo’s Quality:  “‘My dear Frodo!” exclaimed Gandalf. ‘Hobbits really are amazing creatures, as I have said before.  You can learn all that there is to know about their ways in a month, and yet after a hundred years they can still surprise you at a pinch.  I hardly expected to get such an answer, [Going alone to ‘save the Shire’.] not even from you.  But Bilbo made no mistake in choosing his heir, though he little thought how important it would prove.”  pp.96-97

 

66. Sam Longs to See the Elves:  “‘I would dearly love to see them.  Couldn’t you take me to see Elves, sir, when you go?”  p. 98

 

67. Longing for Elves and Rivendell:  “‘Rivendell’ said Frodo.  ‘Very good: I will go east, and I will make for Rivendell.  I will take Sam to visit the Elves; he will be delighted.’  He spoke lightly; but his heart was moved suddenly with the desire to see the house of Elrond Halfelven, and breathe the air of that deep valley were many of the Fair Folk still dwelt in peace.”  p. 100

 

68. Singing with Friends:  “When they had sung many songs, and talked of many things they had done together, they toasted Bilbo’s birthday, and they drank his health and Frodo’s together according to Frodo’s custom.”  p. 103

 

69. Bilbo on the One Road: [Frodo] “Certainly it reminds me very much of Bilbo in the last years, before he went away.  He used often to say there was only one Road; that it was like a great river: its springs were at every doorstep, and every path was its tributary.  “It’s a dangerous business, Frodo, going out of your door,” he used to say.  “You step into the Road, and if you don’t keep your feet, there is no knowing where you might be swept off to.  Do you realize that this is the very path that goes through Mirkwood, and that if you let it, it might take you to the Lonely Mountain or even further and to worse places?”  p. 110

 

70. Gildor and the Elves in Exile:  “‘I am Gildor,’ answered their leader, the Elf who had first hailed him. ‘Gildor Inglorion of the House of Finrod.  We are Exiles, and most of our kindred have long ago departed and we too are now only tarring here a while, ere we return over the Great Sea.  But some of our kinsfolk dwell still in peace in Rivendell.  Come now, Frodo, tell us what you are doing.  For we see that there is some shadow of fear upon you.’”  p. 118

 

71. On the Beauty of Elves:  “Pippin afterwards recalled little of either food or drink, for his mind was filled with the light upon the elf-faces, and the sound of voices so various and so beautiful that he felt in a waking dream.”  p. 121

 

72. Elves on Advice:  “‘And it is also said,’ answered Frodo: ‘Go not to the Elves for counsel, for they will say both no and yes.’ - - - ‘It is indeed?’ laughed Gildor, ‘Elves seldom give unguarded advice, for advice is a dangerous gift, even from the wise to the wise, and all courses may run ill.’” p. 123

 

73. It Was the Elves that Told Sam Not to Leave Frodo:  “’ You still mean to come with me.’ - - - ‘I do.’ - - - ‘It is going to be very dangerous, Sam.  It is already dangerous.  Most likely neither of us will come back.’ - - -‘If you don’t come back, sir, then I shan’t, that’s certain,’ said Sam.  Don’t you leave him! they said to me.   Leave him!  I said.  I never mean to.  I am going with him, if he climbs to the Moon; and if any of those Black Riders try to stop him, they’ll have Sam Gamgee to reckon with, I said.  They laughed.’ - - - ‘Who are they, and what are you talking about?’ - - - ‘The Elves, sir.  We had some talk last night; and they seemed to know you were going away, so I didn’t see the use of denying it.’”  p. 126

 

74. Sam on Elves:  “‘Wonderful folk, Elves, sir! Wonderful!’ - - - ‘They are,’ said Frodo, ‘Do you like them still, now you have had a closer view?’ - - - ‘They seem a bit above my likes and dislikes, so to speak,’ answered Sam slowly.  ‘It don’t seem to matter what I think about them.  They are quite different from what I expected—so old and young, and so gay and sad, as it were.’”  pp. 126-127

 

75. Frodo and Farmer Maggot:  “‘What’s wrong with old Maggot?’ asked Pippin.  ‘He’s a good friend to all the Brandybucks.  Of course he’s a terror to trespassers, and keeps ferocious dogs—but after all, folk down here are near the border and have to be more on their guard.’ - - - ‘I know,’ said Frodo.  ‘But all the same,’ he added with a shamefaced laugh, ‘I am terrified of him and his dogs.  I have avoided his farm for years and years.  He caught me several times trespassing after mushrooms, when I was a youngster at Brandy Hall.  On the last occasion he beat me and then took me and showed me to his dogs.  “See, lads,” he said, “next time this young varmint sets foot on my land, you can eat him.  Now see him off!”  They chased me all the way to the Ferry.  I have never got over the fright—though I daresay the beasts knew their business and would not really have touched me.’”  p. 132

 

76. Shire Folk Don’t Lock Their Doors:  “The Bucklanders kept their doors locked after dark, and that also was not usual in the Shire.”  p. 142

 

77. Hobbits Love of Mushrooms:  “Hobbits have a passion for mushrooms, surpassing even the greediest likings of the Big People.  A fact which partly explains young Frodo’s long expeditions to the renowned fields of the Marish, and the wrath of the injured Maggot.”  p. 146

 

78. Trusting Friends:  “‘It all depends on what you want,’ put in Merry. ‘You can trust us to stick to you through thick and thin—to the bitter end.  And you can trust us to keep any secret of your—closer than you keep it yourself.  But you cannot trust us to let you face trouble alone, and go off without a word.   We are your friends, Frodo.”  p. 150

 

79. The Old Forest, according to Merry:  “Merry answered . . . the Forest is queer.  Everything in it is very much alive, more aware of what is going on, so to speak, than things are in the Shire.  And the trees do not like strangers.  They watch you.  They are usually content merely to watch you, as long as daylight lasts, and don’t do much.  Occasionally the most unfriendly ones may drop a branch, or stick a root out, or grasp at you with a long trailer.  p. 156

 

80. Tom Bombadil:  “With another hop and a bound there came into view a man or so it seemed.  At any rate he was too large and heavy for a hobbit, if not quite tall enough for one of the Big People, though he made noise enough for one, stumping along with great yellow boots on his thick legs, and charging through grass and rushes like a cow going down to drink.  He had a blue coat and a long brown beard; his eyes were blue and bright, and his face was red as a ripe apple, but creased into a hundred wrinkles of laughter. In his hands he carried on a large leaf as on a tray a small pile of white water-lilies.”  p. 168  

 

81. Goldberry:  “In a chair, at the far side of the room facing the outer door, sat a woman.  Her long yellow hair rippled down her shoulders; her gown was green, green as young reeds, shot with silver like beads of dew; and her belt was of gold, shaped like a chain of flag-lilies set with the pale-blue eyes of forget-me-nots.   About her feet in wide vessels of green and brown earthenware, white water-lilies were floating, so that she seemed to be enthroned in the midst of a pool.”  p. 172

 

82. Fordo to Goldberry:  “’Fair lady Goldberry!’ said Frodo at last, feeling his heart moved with a joy that he did not understand.  He stood as he had at times stood enchanted by fair elven-voices; but the spell that was now laid upon him was different: less keen and lofty was the delight, but deeper and nearer to mortal heart; marvelous and yet not strange.”  p. 173

 

83. Goldberry to Frodo, Elf Friend:  “‘Welcome!’ she said.  ‘I had not heard that folk of the Shire were so sweet-toned.  But I see you are an elf-friend; the light in your eyes and the ring in your voice tells it.’”  p. 173

 

84. Goldberry on Tom:  “‘Fair lady!’ said Frodo again after a while.  ‘Tell me, if my asking does not seem foolish, who is Tom Bombadil?’ - - - ‘He is,’ said Godberry, staying he swift movements and smiling. - - - Fordo looked at her questioningly.  ‘He is, as you have seen him,’ she said in answer to his look.  ‘He is the Master of wood, water, and hill.’ - - - ‘then all this strange land belongs to him?’ - - - ‘No indeed!’ she answered, and her smile faded.  ‘That would indeed be a burden, she added in a low voice, as if to herself.  ‘The trees and the grasses and all things growing or living in the land belong each to themselves.  Tom Bombadil is the Master.  No one has ever caught old Tom walking in the forest, wading in the water, leaping on the hill-tops under light and shadow.  He has no fear.  Tom Bombadil is master.’”  pp. 173-174

 

85. Heed Not the Nightly Noises:  “‘Have peace now,’ she said, ‘until the morning!   Heed not the nightly noises!  For nothing passes door and window here save moonlight and starlight and the wind off the hill top.’”  p. 175

 

86. On Chance and the Willow-man:  “At last Frodo Spoke: - - - ‘Did you hear me calling, Master, or was it just chance that brought you at that moment?’ - - - Tom stirred like a man shaken out of a pleasant dream.  ‘Eh, what?’ said he.  ‘Did I hear you calling? Nay, I did not her: I was busy singing.  Just chance brought me then, if chance you call it.  It was no plan of mine, though I was waiting for you.  We heard news of you, and learned that you were wandering.  We guessed you’d come ere long down to the water; all paths lead that way, down to Withy-windle.  Old Grey Willow-man, he’s a mighty singer; and it’s hard for little folk to escape his cunning mazes.’”  pp. 175-176

 

87. Frodo’s Dream of Gandalf:  “It seemed to Frodo that he was lifted up, and passing over he saw that the rock-wall was a circle of hills, and that within it was a plain, and in the midst of the plain stood a pinnacle of stone, like a vast tower but not made by hands.  On its top stood the figure of a man.  The moon as it rose seemed to hang for a moment above his head and glistened in his white hair as the wind stirred it.  Up from the dark plain below came the crying of fell voices, and the howling of many wolves.  Suddenly a shadow, like the shape of great wings, passed across the moon.  The figure lifted his arms and a light flashed from the staff that he wielded.  A mighty eagle swept down and bore him away.”  p. 177

 

88. No Rain on Tom:  “Tom Bombadil came trotting round the corner of the house, waving his arms as if he was warding off the rain—and indeed when he sprang over the threshold he seemed quite dry, except for his boots.”  p. 180

 

89. On Nature the Willow-man and trees:  “As they listened, they began to understand the lives of the Forest, apart from themselves, indeed to feel themselves as the strangers where all other things were at home.  Moving constantly in and out of his talk was Old Man Willow, and Frodo learned now enough to content him, indeed more than enough, for it was not comfortable lore.  Tom’s words laid bare the hearts of trees and their thoughts, which were often dark and strange, and filled with a hatred of things that go free upon the earth, gnawing, biting, breaking, hacking, burning: destroyers and usurpers.”  pp. 180-182

 

90. Tom on the Barrow Downs:  “They heard of the Great Barrows, and the green mounds, and the stone-rings upon the hills and in the hollows among the hills.  Sheep were bleating in flocks.  Green walls and white walls rose.  There were fortresses on the heights.  Kings of little kingdoms fought together, and the young Sun shone like fire on the red metal of their new and greedy swords.  There was victory and defeat; and towers fell, fortresses were burned, and flames went up into the sky.   Gold was piled on the biers of dead kings and queens; and mounds covered them, and the stone doors were shut; and the grass grew over all.  Sheep walked for a while biting the grass, but soon the hills were empty again.   A shadow came out of dark places far away, and the bones were stirred in the mounds.  Barrow-wights walked in the hollow places with a clink of rings on cold fingers, and gold chains in the wind.  Stone rings grinned out of the ground like broken teeth in the moonlight.”  p. 181

 

91. Before the World Changed:   “. . . Tom went singing out into ancient starlight, when only the Elf-sires were awake.”  p. 182

 

92. Tom Was First “I Am That I Am”:  “‘Eh, what?’ said Tom sitting up, and his eyes glinting in the gloom.  ‘Don’t you know my name yet?  That’s the only answer.  Tell me, who are you, alone, yourself and nameless?  But you are young and I am old.  Eldest, that’s what I am.  Mark my words, my friends: Tom was here before the river and the trees; Tom remembers the first raindrop and the first acorn.  He made paths before the Big People, and saw the little People arriving.  He was here before the Kings and the graves and the Barrow-wights.  When the Elves passed westward, Tom was here already, before the seas were bent.  He knew the dark under the stars when it was fearless—before the Dark Lord came from Outside.’”   p. 182

 

93. Songs and Stars “in” the Water:  “After they had eaten, Goldberry sang many songs with them, songs that began merrily in the hills and fell softly down into silence; and in the silences they saw in their minds pools and waters wider than any they had known, and looking into them they saw the sky below them and the stars like jewels in the depths.”  pp. 183-184

 

94. Bombadil on Framer Maggot:  “. . . he [Tom] made no secret that he owed his recent knowledge largely to Farmer Maggot, whom he seemed to regard as a person of more importance than they had imagined.  ‘There’s earth under his old feet, and clay on his fingers; wisdom in his bones, and both his eyes are open,’ said Tom.”  p. 184

 

95. Tom Has Dealings with Elves:  “It was also clear that Tom had dealings with the Elves, and it seemed that in some fashion, news had reached him from Gildor concerning the flight of Frodo. “  p. 184

 

96. Tom and the Ring:  “‘Show me the precious Ring!’ he [Tom] said suddenly in the midst of the story; and Frodo, to his own astonishment, drew out the chain from his pocket, and unfastening the Ring handed it at once to Tom. - - - It seemed to grow larger as it lay for a moment on his big brown-skinned hand.  Then suddenly he put it to his eye and laughed.  For a second the hobbits had a vision, both comical and alarming, of his bright blue eyes gleaming through a circle of gold.  Then Tom put the Ring round the end of his little finger and held it up to the candle-light.  For a moment the hobbits noticed nothing strange about this.  Then they gasped.  There was no sign of Tom disappearing! - - - Tom laughed again, and then he spun the Ring in the air—and it vanished with a flash.  Frodo gave a cry—and Tom leaned forward and handed it back to him with a smile.”  pp. 184-185

 

97.  The Ring Cannot Hide Frodo from Tom:  “. . . It was the same Ring . . . But something prompted him to make sure.  He was perhaps a trifle annoyed with Tom for seeming to make so light of what even Gandalf thought so perilously important.  He waited for an opportunity . . . then he slipped the Ring on. - - - Merry turned towards him to say something and gave a start, and checked an exclamation.  Frodo was delighted (in a way): it was his own ring all right, for Merry was staring blankly at his chair, and obviously could not see him.  He got up and crept quietly away from the fireside towards the outer door. - - - ‘Hey there!’ cried Tom, glancing towards him with a most seeing look in his shining eyes.  ‘Hey! Come Frodo, there!  Where be you a-going?  Old Tom Bombadil’s not as blind as that yet.  Take off you golden ring!  Your hand’s more fair without it’”  p. 185

 

98. Not Even Tom Is a Weather-master:  “Tom now told them that he reckoned the Sun would shine tomorrow, and it would be a glad morning, and setting out would be hopeful.  But they would do well to start early; for weather in that country was a thing that even Tom could not be sure of for long, and it would change sometimes quicker than he could change his jacket.  ‘I am no weather-master,’ he said; ‘nor is aught that goes on two legs.’”  P. 185

 

99. Tom’s Help Song:  “Ho! Tom Bombadil, Tom Bombadillo! - - - By water, wood and hill, by reed and willow, - - - By fire, sun and moon, harken now and hear us! - - - Come, Tom Bombadil, for our need is near us!”  p. 186

 

100. Frodo’s “Dream” of Heaven:  “But either in his dreams or out of them, he could not tell which, Frodo heard a sweet singing running in his mind: a song that seemed to come like a pale light behind a grey rain-curtain, and growing stronger to turn the veil all to glass and silver, until at last it was rolled back, and a far green country opened before him under a swift sunrise.”  p. 187

 

101. The Seed of Courage and Frodo’s Quality:  “There is a seed of courage hidden (often deeply, it is true) in the heart of the fattest and most timid hobbit, waiting for some final and desperate danger to make it grow.  Frodo was neither very fat nor very timid; indeed, though he did not know it, Bilbo (and Gandalf) had thought him the best hobbit in the Shire.”  p. 194

 

102. The Naked Running:  “But Tom shook his head, saying: ‘You’ve found yourselves again, out of the deep water.  Clothes are but little loss, if you escape from drowning.  Be glad, my merry friends, and let the warm sunlight heat now heart and limb!  Cast off these cold rags!  Run naked on the grass, while Tom goes a-hunting!’ . . . The air was growing very warm again.  The hobbits ran about for a while on the grass, as he told them.  Then they lay basking in the sun with the delight of those that have been wafted suddenly from bitter winter to a friendly clime or of people that, after being long ill and bedridden, wake one day to find that they are unexpectedly well and the day is again full of promise.”  pp. 198-199

 

103. Treasures from the Barrow:  “While they were eating Tom went up to the mound, and looked through the treasures.  Most of these he made into a pile that glistened and sparkled on the grass.  He bade them lie there  ‘free to all finders, birds, beasts, Elves or Men, and all kindly creatures’; for so the spell of the mound should be broken and scattered and no Wight ever come back to it.  He chose for himself from the pile a brooch set with blue stones, many-shaded like flax-flowers or the wings of blue butterflies.  He looked long at it, as if stirred by some memory, shaking his head, and saying at last, - - - ‘Here is a pretty toy for Tom and for his lady!  Fair was she who long ago wore this on her shoulder.  Goldberry shall wear it now, and we will not forget her!’ - - - For each of the hobbits he chose a dagger, long, leaf shaped, and keen, of marvelous workmanship, damasked with serpent-forms in red and gold.  They gleamed as he drew them from their black sheaths, wrought of some strange metal, light and strong, and set with many fiery stones.  Whether by some virtue in the sheaths or because of the spell that lay on the mound, the blades seemed untouched by time, un-rusted, sharp, glittering in the sun. - - - ‘Old knives are long enough as swords for hobbit-people,’ he said.  ‘Sharp blades are good to have, if Shire-fold go walking, east, south, or far away into dark and danger.’  Then he told them that these blades were forged many long years ago by Men of Westerness: they were foes of the Dark Lord, but they were overcome by the evil king of Carn Dum in the Land of Angmar.”   pp. 200-201

 

104. Descendants of the Kings of Westerness – the Rangers:  “’Few now remember them,’ Tom murmured, ‘yet still some go wandering, sons of forgotten kings walking in loneliness, guarding from evil things folk that are heedless.’ - - - The hobbits did not understand his words, but as he spoke they had a vision as it were of a great expanse of years behind them, like a vast shadowy plain over which there strode shapes of Men, tale and grim with bright swords, and last came one with a star on his brow.”  p. 201

 

105.  Bree Folk:  “The Men of Bree were brown-haired, broad, and rather short, cheerful and independent: they belonged to nobody but themselves; but they were more friendly and familiar with Hobbits, Dwarves, Elves, and other inhabitants of the world about them than was (or is) usual with Big People.  According to their own tales they were the original inhabitants and were the descendants of the first Men that ever wandered into the West of the middle-world.  Few had survived the turmoils of the Elder Days; but when the Kings returned again over the Great Seas they had found the Bree-men still there, and they were still there now, when the memory of the old Kings had faded into the grass.”  p. 205

 

106. Rangers:  “. . . in the wild lands beyond Bree there were mysterious wanderers.  The Bree-folk called them Rangers, and knew nothing of their origin.  They were taller and darker than the Men of Bree and were believed to have strange powers of sight and hearing, and to understand the languages of beasts and birds.  They roamed at will southwards and eastwards even as far as the Misty Mountains; but they were now few and rarely seen.”  p. 205

 

107. The Hobbits of Bree:  “There were also many families of hobbits in the Bree-land; and they claimed to be the oldest settlement of Hobbits in the world, one that was founded long before even the Brandywine was crossed and the Shire colonized.  They lived mostly in Staddle though there were some in Bree itself, especially on the higher slopes on the hill, above the houses of the Men.  The Big Folk and the Little Folk (as they called one another) were on friendly terms, minding their own affairs in their own ways, but both rightly regarding themselves as necessary parts of the Bree-folk.  Nowhere else in the world was this peculiar (but excellent) arrangement to be found . . . in the Bree-land, at any rate, the hobbits were decent and prosperous, and no more rustic than most of their distant relatives Inside.”  p. 206

 

108. On the Prancing Pony:  “Even from the outside the inn looked a pleasant house to familiar eyes.  It had a front on the Road, and two wings running back on land partly cut out of the lower slopes of the hill, so that at the rear the second-floor windows were level with the ground . . . - - - As they [Frodo and Company] hesitated outside in the gloom, someone began singing a merry song inside, and many cheerful voices joined loudly in the chorus.  They listened to this encouraging sound for a moment and then got their ponies.  The song ended and there was a burst of laughter and clapping.” p. 209

 

109. Butterbur and as They Say in Bree:  “‘Might I ask your names, sir?’ - - - ‘Mr. Took and Br. Brandybuck,’ said Frodo; ‘and this is Sam Gamgee.  My name is Underhill.’ - - - ‘There now!’ said Mr. Butterbur, snapping his fingers.  ‘It’s gone again!  But it’ll come back, when I have time to think . . . It never rains but it pours, we say in Bree.’ - - - ‘Well, now, what was I going to say?’ said Mr. Butterbur, tapping his forehead.  ‘One thing drives out another, so to speak.”  p. 210

 

110. A Glimpse at Merry’s Character:  “Merry said it would be too stuffy.  ‘I shall sit here quietly by the fire for a bit, and perhaps go out later for a sniff of the air.  Mind your Ps and Qs, and don’t forget that you are supposed to be escaping in secret, and are still on the highroad and not very far from the Shire!’”  p.212

 

111. Bree Hobbit Are Good and Friendly:  “The Bree-hobbits were, in fact, friendly and inquisitive, and Frodo soon found that some explanation of what he was doing would have to be given.  He gave out that he was interested in history and geography (at which there was much wagging of heads, although neither of these words were much used in the Bree-dialect)."  p. 213

 

112. On Refugees and Immigrants:  “The Bree-folk were sympathetic, but plainly not very ready to take a large number of strangers into their little land.  One of the travelers, a squint-eyed ill-favored fellow, was foretelling that more and more people would be coming north in the near future.  ‘If room isn’t found for them, they’ll find it for themselves.  [Think how the Indians felt about the coming or Europeans].  They’ve a right to live, same as other folk,’ he said loudly.  The local inhabitants did not look pleased at the prospect."  p. 213

 

113.  Strider Described:  “‘Who is that?’ Frodo asked, when he got a chance to whisper to Br. Butterbur.  ‘I don’t think you introduced him.’ - - - ‘Him?’ said the land lord in an answering whisper, cocking an eye without turning his head.  ‘I don’t rightly know.  He is one of the wandering folk—Rangers we call them.  He seldom talks: not but what he can tell a rare tale when he has a mind.  He disappears for a month, or a year, and then he pops up again.  He was in and out pretty often last spring; but I haven’t seen him about lately.  What his right name is I’ve never heard: but he’s known around here as Strider.  Goes about at a great pace on his long shanks; though he don’t tell nobody what cause he has to hurry.  But there’s no accounting for East and West, a we say in Bree, meaning the Rangers and the Shire-folk, begging your pardon.  Funny you should ask about him.’ . . . Frodo found that Strider was now looking at him, as if he had heard or guessed all that had been said.  Presently, with a wave of his hand and a nod, he invited Frodo to come over and sit by him.  As Frodo drew near he threw back his hood, showing a shaggy head of dark hair flecked with grey, and in a pale stern face a pair of keen grey eyes.”  p. 215

 

114. Sun a She:  “*Elves (and Hobbits) always refer to the Sun as She.”  p. 218

 

115. Strider Is Older than He Looks:  “I [Strider] am older than I look.”  p. 225

 

116. Gandalf’s Description of Frodo:  “‘A stout little fellow with red cheeks,’ said Mr. Butterbur solemnly.  Pippin chuckled, but Sam looked indignant.  ‘That won’t help you much; it goes for most hobbits, Barley, he says to me,’ continued Mr. Butterbur with a glance at Pippin.  ‘But this one is taller than some and fairer than most, and he has a cleft in his chin: perky chap with a bright eye.”  p. 227

 

117. The Courage of Barliman Butterbur:  “‘They come from Mordor,’ said Strider in a low voice.  ‘From Mordor, Barliman, if that means anything to you.’ - - - ‘Save us!’ cried Mr. Butterbur turning pale; the name evidently was known to him.  ‘That is the worst news that has come to Bree in my time.’ - - - ‘It is,’ said Frodo.  ‘Are you still willing to help me?’ - - - ‘I am,’ said Mr. Butterbur.  ‘More than ever.  Thought I don’t know what the likes of me can do against, against’ ----he faltered.”  p. 229

 

118. Merry Is Out “Leading”:  “‘Where’s your Mr. Brandybuck?” - - - ‘I don’t know,’said Frodo with sudden anxiety.  They had forgotten all about Merry, and it was getting late.  ‘I am afraid he is out.  He said something about going for a breath of air.’”  p. 230

 

119. Gandalf’s Handwriting:  “Inside, written in the wizard’s strong but graceful script was the following message: . . . “ p. 230

 

120. As They Say in the Shire:  “‘But handsome is as handsome does, as we say in the Shire; and I daresay we shall all look mush the same after lying for days in hedges and ditches.”  p. 232

 

121. Aragorn’s Oath:  “‘But I am the real Strider, fortunately,’ he said, looking down at them with his face softened by a sudden smile.  ‘I am Aragorn son of Arathorn; and if by life or death I can save you, I will.’”  p. 233

 

122. Frodo on Aragorn:  “At last Frodo spoke with hesitation. ‘I believe that you were a friend before the letter came,’ he said, ‘or at least I wished to.  You have frightened me several times tonight, but never in the way that servants of the Enemy would, or so I imagine.  I think one of his spies would—well, seem fairer and feel fouler, if you understand.  p. 233

 

123. Strider on Aragorn:  “‘I see,’ laughed Strider.  ‘I look four and feel fair.  Is that it?  All that is gold does not glitter, not all those that wander are lost.’ - - - Did the verses apply to you then?’  asked Frodo.  ‘I could not make out what they were about.  But how did you know that they were in Gandalf’s letter, if you have never seen it?’ - - - ‘I did not know,’ he answered.  ‘But I am Aragorn, and those verses go with that name.’  He drew out his sword, and they saw that the blade was indeed broken a foot below the hilt.  ‘Not much use is it, Sam?’ said Strider.  ‘But the time is near when it shall be forged anew.’  p. 233

 

124. Merry, Once Again:  “Merry came in with a rush followed by Nob.  He shut the door hastily, and leaned against it.  He was out of breath.  They stared at him in alarm for a moment before he gasped: ‘I have seen them, Frodo I have seen them! Black Riders!’ - - -‘Black Riders!’ cried Frodo.  ‘Where?’ - - - ‘Here.  In the village.  I stayed indoors for an hour.  Then as you did not come back, I went out for a stroll.  I had come back again and was standing just outside the light of the lamp looking at the stars.  Suddenly I shivered and felt that something horrible was creeping near: there was a sort of deeper shade among the shadows across the road, just beyond the edge of the lamplight.  It slid away at once into the dark without a sound. There was no horse.’ - - - ‘Which way did it go?’ asked strider, suddenly and sharply. - - - Merry started, noticing the stranger for the first time.  ‘Go on!’ said Frodo.  ‘This is a friend of Gandalf’s.  I will explain later.’ - - - ‘It seemed to make off up the Road, eastward,’ continued Merry.  ‘I tried to follow.  Of course, it vanished almost at once, but I went round the corner and on as far as the last house on the Road.’ - - - Strider looked at Merry with wonder.  ‘You have stout heart,’ he said; ‘but it was foolish.’ - - - ‘I don’t know,’ said Merry.  “Neither brave nor silly, I think.  I could hardly help myself.  I seemed to be drawn somehow.  Anyway, I went, and suddenly I heard voices by the hedge.  One was muttering; and the other was whispering, or hissing.  I couldn’t hear a word that was said. I did not creep any closer, because I began to tremble all over.  Then I felt terrified, and I turned back, and was just going to bolt home, when something came behind me and I . . . I fell over.’ - - - ‘I found him, sir, put in Nob.  ‘Mr. Butterbur sent me out with a lantern.  I went down to West-gate, and then back up towards South-gate.  Just nigh Bill Ferny’s house I thought I could see something in the Road.  I couldn’t swear to it, but it looked to me as if two men was stooping over something, lifting it.  I gave a shout, but when I got up to the spot there was no signs of them, and only Mr. Brandybuck lying by the roadside.  He seemed to be asleep.  “I thought I had falling into deep water,” he says to me, when I shook him.  Very queer he was, and as soon as I had roused him, he got up and ran back here like a hare.’”  pp. 235-236

 

125. The Big Dipper:  “Peering out, Frodo saw that the night was still clear.  The Sickle* was swinging bright above the shoulders of Bree-hill.”  *The Hobbits’ name for the Plough or Great Bear.

 

126. Bugs:  “The flies began to torment them, and the air was full of clouds of tiny midges that crept up their sleeves and breeches and into their hair. - - - “‘I am being eaten alive!’ cried Pippin.  ‘Midgewater!  There are more midges than water!’ - - - ‘What do they live on when they can’t get hobbit?’ asked Sam, scratching his neck. - - - The spent a miserable day in this lonely and unpleasant country.  Their camping-place was damp, cold, and uncomfortable; and the biting insects would not l them sleep.  Here were also abominable creatures haunting the reeds and tussocks that from the sound of them were evil relatives of the cricket.  There were thousands of them, and they squeaked all round, neek-breek, breek-neek, unceasingly all the night, until the hobbits were nearly frantic.”  pp. 246-247

 

127. Frodo’s Looking Better (NEP):  “Already they were getting used to much walking on short commons—shorter at any rate than what in the Shire they would have thought barely enough to keep them on their legs.  Pippin declared that Frodo was looking twice the hobbit that he had been. - - - ‘Very odd,’ said Frodo, tightening his belt, ‘considering that there is actually a good deal less of me.”  p. 249

 

128. Elendil and Gil-galad:  “. . . in the first days of the Noreth Kingdom, they built a great watch-tower on Weahtertop, Aon Sul they called it . . . It is told that Elendil stood there watching for the coming of Gil-galad out of the West, in the days of the Last Alliance.’ - - - The hobbits gazed at Strider.  It seemed that he was learned in old lore, as well as in the ways of the wild.  ‘Who was Gil-galad?’ asked Merry; but Strider did not answer, and seemed to be lost in thought.  Suddenly a low voice murmured: - - - Gil-galad was an Elven-king. - - - Of him the harpers sadly sing: - - - the last whose realm was fair and free - - - between the Mountains and the Sea. - - - His sword was long, his lance was keen, - - - his shining helm afar was seen; - - - the countless stars of heaven’s field - - - were mirrored in his silver shield. - - - But long ago he rode away, - - - and where he dwelleth none can say; - - - for into darkness fell his star - - - in Mordor where the shadows are.’ - - - The others turned in amazement, for the voice was Sam’s.”  p. 250

 

129. On Bilbo’s as Teacher:  “‘That’s all I know,’ stammered Sam, blushing.  ‘I learned it from Mr. Bilbo when I was a lad.  He used to tell me tales like that, knowing how I was always one for hearing about Elves.  It was Mr. Bilbo as taught me my letters.  He was might book-learned was dear old Mr. Bilbo.  And he wrote poetry.  He wrote what I have just said.’ - - - ‘He did not make it up,’ said Strider.  ‘It is part of the lay that is called The Fall of Gil-galad, which is in an ancient tongue.  Bilbo must have translated it.  I never knew that.’”  pp.250-251

 

130. The Story of Beren and Luthien Tinuviel:  “”That is a song,’ he said, ‘in the mode that is called ann-thennath among the Elves, but is hard to render in our Common Speech, and this is but a rough echo of it.  It tells of the meeting of Beren son of Barahir and Luthien Tinuviel. Bern was a mortal man, but Luthien was the daughter of Thingol, a King of Elves upon Middle-earth when the world was young; and she was the fairest maiden that has ever been among all the children of this world. As the stars above the mists of the Northern lands was her loveliness, and in her face was a shining light.  In those days the Great Enemy, of whom Sauron of Mordor was but a servant, dwelt in Angbad in the North, and the Elves of the West coming back to Middle-earth made war upon him.  To regain the Simarils which he had stolen; and the fathers of Men aided the Elves.  But the Enemy was victorious and Barahir was slain, and Beren escaping through great peril came over the Mountains of Terror into the hidden Kingdom of Thigol in the forest of Neldoreth.  There he beheld Luthien singing and dancing in a glade beside the enchanted river Esgalduin; and he named her Tinuviel, that is Nightingale in the language of old.  Many sorrows befell them after wards, and they were parted long.  Tinviel rescued Bern from the dungeons of Sauron, and together they passed through great dangers, and cast down even the Great Enemy from his throne, and took from his iron crown on of the three Simarils, brightest of all jewels, to be the bride-piece of Luthien to Thingol her father.  Yet at the last Beren was slain by the Wolf that came from the gates of Angband, and he died in the arms of Tinuviel.  But she chose mortality, and to die from the world, so that she might follow him; and it is sung that they met again beyond the Sundering Seas, and after a brief time walking alive once more in the green woods, together they passed, long ago, beyhond the confines of this world.  So it is that Lutien Tinuviel alone of the Elf-kindred has died indeed and left the world, and they have lost her whom they most loved. But from her linage of the Elf-lords of old descended among Men.  There live still those of whom Luthien was the foremother, and it is said that her line shall never fail.  Elrond of Rivendell is of the Kin.  For of Beren and Lutien was born Dior Thingol’s heir; and of him Elwig the white tower whom Earendil wedded, he that sailed his ship out of the mists of the world into the seas of heaven with the Simaril upon his brow.  And of Earendil came the Kings of Numenor, that is Westernesse.’”  pp. 260-261

 

131. The Ring Wraths as Frodo Sees Them:  “Immediately [after putting on the Ring], though everything else remained as before, dim and dark, the shapes became terribly clear.  He was able to see beneath their black wrappings.  There were five tall figures: two standing on the lip of the dell, three advancing.  In their white faces burned keen and merciless eyes; under their mantles were long grey robes; upon their gray hairs were helms of silver; in their haggard hands were swords of steel.”  p. 263 

 

132. Frodo’s Strength:  “‘Don’t despair!’ said Strider.  ‘You must trust me now.  Your Frodo is made of sterner stuff than I had guessed, though Gandalf hinted that it might prove. So.  He is not slain, and I think he will resist the evil power of the wound longer than his enemies will expect.’”  p. 265

 

133. Power of the Name of Elbereth:  “More deadly to him [the Ring Wrath] was then name of Elereth.”  p. 265

 

134. The Morgol Knife.  “‘And more deadly to Frodo was this!’  He stooped again and lifted up a ling thin knife.  There was a cold gleam in it.  As Strider raised it they saw that near the end its edge was notched and the point was broken off.  But even as he held it up in the growing light, they gazed in astonishment, for the blade seemed to melt, and vanished like a smoke in the air, leaving only the hilt in Strider’s hand.  ‘Alas!’ he cried.  “it was this accursed knife that gave the wound.  Few now have the skill in healing to match such evil weapons.  But I will do what I can.’”  pp. 265-266

 

135. Athelas:  “‘These leaves,’ he [Strider] said, ‘I have walked far to find; for this plant does not grow in the bare hills; but in the thickets away south of the Road I found it in the dark by the scent of its leaves.’  He crushed a leaf in his fingers, and it gave out a sweet and pungent fragrance.   ‘It is fortunate that I could find it, for it is a healing plant that the Men of the West brought to Middle-earth.  Athelas they named it, and it grows now sparsely and only near places where they dwelt or caped of old; and it is not known in the North, except to some of those who wander in the Wild. It has great virtues, but over such a wound as this its healing powers may be small.’”  p. 266

 

136. Strider on History:  “‘Where did you learn such tales, if the land is empty and forgetful?’ asked Peregrin.  ‘The Birds and beasts do not tell tales of that sort. - - -‘The heirs of ELendil do not forget all things past,’ said Strider; ‘and many more things than I can tell are remembered in Rivendell.’”  p. 270

 

137. Strider Recognizes Merry’s Strength:  “As soon as it was light, Strider took Merry with him and went to survey the country from the height to the east of the pass.”  p. 273

 

138. Bilbo’s Trolls:  “‘You are forgetting not only your family history, but all you ever knew about trolls,’ said Strider.  ‘It is broad daylight with a bright sun, and yet you come back trying to scare me with a tale of live trolls waiting for us in this glade!  In any case you might have noticed that one of them has an old bird’s nest behind his ear.’”  p. 265-276

 

140. Power of a Song:  “‘Won’t somebody give us a bit of a song, while the sun is high?’ said Merry, when they had finished.  ‘We haven’t had a song or a tale for days.’ - - - ‘Not since Weathertop,’ said Frodo.  The others looked at him.  ‘Don’t worry about me!’ he added.  ‘I feel much better, but I don’t think I could sing.  Perhaps Sam could dig something out of his memory.’”  p. 276

 

141. Sam the Song Maker:  “‘Where did you come by that, [song about trolls] Sam?’ asked Pippin.  ‘I’ve never heard those words before.’ - - Sam muttered something inaudible.  ‘It’s out of his own head, of course,’ said Frodo.  ‘I am learning a lot about Sam Gamgee on this journey.  First he was a conspirator, now he’s a jester.  He’ll end up becoming a wizard—or a warrior!’”  p. 278

 

142. Bilbo’s Morality:  “‘There!’ said Merry.  ‘That must be the stone that marked the place where the trolls’ gold was hidden.  How much is left of Bilbo’s share, I wonder, Frodo?’ - - - Frodo looked at the stone, and wished that Bilbo had brought home no treasure more perilous, nor less easy to part with.  ‘None at all,’ he said.  ‘Bilbo gave it all away.  He told me he did not feel it was really his, as it came from robbers.’”  p. 278

 

143.  Glorfindel:  “The sound of hoofs drew nearer.  They were going fast, with a light clippety-clippety-clip.  Then faintly, as if it was blown away from them by the breeze, they seemed to catch a dim ringing, as of small bells tinkling. - - - ‘That does not sound like a Black Rider’s horse!’ said Frodo, listening intently.  The other hobbits agreed hopefully that it did not, but they all remained full of suspicion.  They had been in fear of pursuit for so long that any sound from behind seemed ominous and unfriendly.  Bu Strider was now leaning forward, stooped to the ground, with a hand to his ear, and a look of joy on his face. - - - The light faded, and the leaves on the bushes rustled softly.  Clearer and nearer now the bells jingled, and clippety-clip came the quick trotting feet.  Suddenly into view below came a white horse, gleaming in the shadows, running swiftly.  In the dusk its headstall flickered and flashed, as if it were studded with gems like living stars.  The rider’s cloak streamed behind him, and his hood was thrown back; his golden hair flowed shimmering in the wind of his speed.  To Frodo it appeared that a white light was shining through the form and raiment of the rider, as if through a thin veil. - - - Strider sprang from hiding and dashed down towards the Road, leaping with a cry through the heather; but even before he had moved or called, the rider had reined his horse and halted, looking up towards the thicket where they stood.  When he saw Strider, he dismounted and ran to meet him calling out: Ai na verdui Dunadan!  Mae govannen!  His speech and clear ringing voice left no doubt in their hearts: the rider was of the Elven-folk.  No others that dwelt in the wide world had voices so fair to hear.  But there seemed to be another of haste or fear in his call, and they saw that he was now speaking quickly and urgently to Strider. - - - Soon Strider beckoned to them, and the hobbits left the bushes and hurried down to the Road.  ‘This is Glorfindel, who dwells in the house of Elrond,’ said Strider. - - - ‘Hail, and well met at last!’ said the Elf-lord to Frodo.  ‘I was sent form Rivendell to look for you.  We feared that you were in danger upon the road.’ - - - ‘Then Gandalf has reached Rivendell?’ cried Frodo joyfully. - - - ‘No.  He had not when I departed; but that was nine days ago,’ answered Glofindel.  ‘Elrond received news that troubled him.  Some of my kindred, journeying in your land beyond the Barnduin,*(* The Brandywine River) learned that things were amiss, and sent messages as swiftly as they could.  They said that the Nine were abroad, and that you were astray bearing a great burden without guidance, for Gandalf had not returned.  There are few even in Rivendell that can ride openly against the Nine; but such as there were, Elrond sent out north, west, and south.  It was thought that you might turn far aside to avoid pursuit, and become lost in the Wilderness. - - - ‘It was my lot to take the Road, and I came to the Bridge of Mitheithel, and left a token there, nigh on seven days ago.  Three of the servants of Sauron were upon the Bridge, but they withdrew and I pursued them westward.  I came also upon two others, but they turned away southward.  Since then I have searched for your trail.  Two days ago I found it, and followed it over the Bridge; and today I marked where you descended from the hills again.  But come!  There is no time for gather news.  Since you are here we must risk the peril of the Road and go.  There are five behind us, and when they find your trail upon the Road they will ride after us like the wind. And they are not all.  Where the other four may be, I do not know.  I fear that we may find the Ford is already held against us.’ . . . Glrofindel caught Frodo as he sank to the ground, and taking him gently in his arms he looked in his face with grave anxiety. - - - Briefly Strider told of the attack on their camp under Weathertop, and of the deadly knife.  He drew out the hilt, which he had kept, and handed it to the Elf.  Glorfindel shuddered as he took it, but he looked intently at it. - - - ‘There are evil things written on this hilt,’ he said; ‘though maybe your eyes cannot see them.  Keep it, Aragorn, till we reach the house of Elrond!  But be wary, and handle it as little as you may!  Alas! The wounds of this weapon are beyond my skill to heal.  I will do what I can—but all the more do I urge you now to go on without rest.’ - - - He searched the wound on Frodo’s shoulder with his fingers, and his face grew graver, as if what he learned disquieted him.  But Frodo felt the chill lessen in his side and arm; a little warmth crept down from his shoulder to his hand, and the pain grew easier.  The dusk of evening seemed to grow light about him, as if a cloud had been withdrawn.  He saw his friends’ faces more clearly again, and a measure of new hope and strength returned. - - - ‘You shall ride my horse,’ said Glorfindel. ‘I will shorten the stirrups up to the saddle-skirts, and you must sit as tight as you can. But you need not fear: my horse will not let any rider fall that I command him to bear.  His pace is light and smooth; and if danger presses too near, he will bear you away with a speed that even the black steeds of the enemy cannot rival.’”  pp. 279-282

 

144. Frodo Confronts the Nine and His Sword Is Broken:  “‘By Elbereth and Luthien the Fair,’ said Frodo with a last effort, lifting up his sword, ‘you shall have neither the Ring nor me!’ - - - Then the leader, who was now half across the Ford, stood up menacing in his stirrups, and raised up his hand.  Frodo was stricken dumb.  He felt his tongue cleave to his mouth, and his heart laboring.  His sword broke and fell out of his shaking hand.  The elf-horse reared and snorted.  The foremost of the black horses had almost set foot upon the shore.”  p. 286

 

145. The Fall of the Ring Wraths at the Ford, the Glory of Glofindel:  “At that moment there came a roar and a rushing: a noise of loud waters rolling many stones.  Dimly Frodo saw the river below him rise, and down along its course there came a plumed cavalry of waves.  White flames seemed to Frodo to flicker on their crests and he half fancied that he saw amid the water white riders upon white horses with frothing manes.  The three Riders that were still in the midst of the Ford were overwhelmed: they disappeared, buried suddenly under angry foam.  Those that were behind drew back in dismay. - - - With his last failing senses Frodo heard cries, and it seemed to him that he saw, beyond the Riders that hesitated on the shore, and shinning figure of white light; and behind it ran small shadowy forms waving flames, that flared red in the grey mist that was falling over the world. - - - The black horses were filled with madness, and leaping forward in terror they bore their riders into the rushing flood.  Their piercing cries were drowned in the roaring of the rive as it carried them away.”   p. 286